What is Organic Waste

  • What is「Organic Waste 」?

    Organic wastes have different interpretations in different areas:

    「Organic」in Chemistry field: The compound consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen etc 。

    「Organic」in Biology and Environment field: The material comes from the once living units, such as animals, plants and microorganisms。

    Organic wastes can refer to the residue of plants, animal and microbes, or waste materials naturally generated from all living things 。

    Organic_W2

  • Organic waste types:

    In Taiwan, the organic waste can be divided into three categories, which are “Industrial organic waste”, “Agriculture organic waste” and “household organic waste”. The household part is approximately 10%, the industrial and the agriculture accounts for 40% and 50% respectively。

    The organic wastes of industry:Food processing manufacturing industry, brewery, slaughter house, restaurant, market, hospital, hotel, vegetative raw material for medicine, papermaking, sludge, and tannery etc。

    The organic waste of agriculture:farming, forestry, fishing and gardening, fruits and vegetables, mushroom, farm, forest, livestock breeding farm, fishery cultivation factory, pig and cow stock farm etc。

    The organic wastes of household:food waste from kitchen, institution, army, school, and prison etc。

    Organic_W4

  • The influence of organic waste:

    The organic wastes are the major raw material of organic fertilizer. When the soil is deficient in organic materials, the fertility will be degraded and the health of crops will surely be affected. Thus, humans must use more chemical fertilizers and pesticides to cultivate。

    It is similar that we will have to take medicines when our body is short of nutrition and susceptible to illness。

    Excessive dose of chemical fertilizers and pesticides may remain on foods. Long-term consumption of these chemical toxins will accumulate in our body and cause various disease 。

    Organic_W3

The types of organic wastes can be classified into three categories:「Agricultural Organic Waste」「Industrial Organic Waste」and「Daily Organic Waste」


Agriculture, forestry, fishery, poultry, and livestock waste –Waste from processing of animals or cultivating of plants

  • Agriculture and horticulture: Cereals, grains, mushrooms, vegetables, fruits, palm, olive, flowers, beans, etc. —>Residue of crop
  • Forestry: Forest logging, wood processing, driftwood, etc. —>Residue from forestry
  • Fishery: Fish, shrimp, shellfish, ornamental fish, etc. —>Waste from breeding
  • Poultry: Chicken, duck, bird, goose, etc. —>Manure
  • Livestock: pig, cow, cattle, goat, sheep, horse, rabbit, deer, etc. —>Manure

cows

Industrial Waste – Waste from business activities for food, entertainment, service, culture, medication, etc.

  • Food processing: Vegetable, cookies, drink, frozen, coffee, tea, dairy, grains, cereal, beans, etc. —>Residue of processing
  • Slaughterhouse, fresh-caught processing, cannery, meat processing, etc. —> Waste with or without oil(fat)
  • Winery, distiller, vineyard, sugar refinery, oil extraction factory, pharmaceutist biotechnology, energy mining, industrial parks, etc. —>Lees, distiller’s grains, pharmaceutical wastes, residue of animal and plants, kitchen waste, sludge
  • Paper mill, biogas, polluted water treatment, leather industry, etc. —>Organic sludge, fur and leather
  • Hotels, resorts, restaurants, central kitchens, hospitals, nursing homes, etc. —>Vegetable and fruit, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Super market, wholesale market, hypermarket, traditional markets, department stores, etc. —>Vegetable and fruit, expiry food
  • Zoo, parks, road greenness, construction, decoration, furniture manufacturing, etc. —>Animal manure, food waste, garden waste, wood waste

factory13

Daily Waste – Waste from daily life, food, drink, etc.

  • Organizations, environmental agencies, local governments, etc. —> Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Army, ships, ports, defense agencies, military schools, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Communities, apartment, houses, buildings, villages, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Elementary school, high schools, colleges, universities, institutions, kindergartens, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste
  • Prisons, detention centers, etc. —>Fruits and vegetables, kitchen waste, garden waste

garbage-on-street

Remark:

The organic waste listed above shouldn’t contain heavy metals, pathogens or other pollutants.

Japan

  • Japan produces about 400 million tons of business waste each year and 50 million tons of municipal waste, of which about 40% of urban waste is kitchen waste, which is 20 million tons. According to 2010 statistics show that about 48% of the kitchen waste is recycled, these recycling methods, including pig, compost … and other treatment. But the kitchen waste in the business like the market did not sell the food, expired food and so did not recover, but directly into the incinerator。

Germany

  • Germany and Austria, some 75% of organic wastes are composted for recycling, including large composting compartments and their own composting composts, as a result of resource recovery and environmental protection。

Sweden

  • The Nordic countries are committed to reducing food waste and making good use of kitchen waste, so the government has invested $ 700,000 to build a small demonstration plant in Biogas to collect and dispose of kitchen waste。

State of Organic Waste

Category Item Unit USA Canada U.K. Germany Freance Italy Austrilia
Daily Population 317,408,015 35,540,419 64,105,654 80,781,000 66,019,000 60,780,377 23,622,400
Total Amount Ton 158,704,008 17,770,210 32,052,827 40,390,500 33,009,500 30,390,189 11,811,200
Agriculture Cereals Ton 356,961,850 50,066,680 19,515,000 44,942,300 70,981,610 19,045,559 43,371,698
Fiber crops Ton 3,598,000 28,500 13,825 0 53,400 1,700 973,497
Fruit Ton 26,548,859 706,076 371,730 2,567,164 7,754,173 13,889,219 3,243,725
Seedcake Ton 70,019,306 13,507,658 1,560,660 2,935,226 4,201,487 474,928 3,027,028
Oil crops Ton 17,566,882 6,977,916 986,360 1,865,446 2,793,390 845,317 1,636,170
Beans Ton 2,357,134 4,726,760 565,000 240,300 884,653 158,802 3,892,522
Roots & tubers Ton 20,368,658 4,590,296 4,553,000 10,665,600 6,340,807 1,602,759 1,330,186
Nuts Ton 1,547,470 16,000 54,349 242,747 177,612
Vegetables Ton 35,947,720 2,356,565 2,260,740 3,820,721 5,636,952 12,297,645 1,973,014
Total Amount Ton 106,983,176 16,592,090 5,965,263 13,410,551 19,740,164 9,711,735 11,925,090
Forestry Roundwood Ton 332,909,000 151,978,164 10,119,547 52,338,130 52,370,652 7,744,463 28,504,000
Sawmills Ton 64,946,000 40,564,043 3,409,400 21,081,300 8,067,274 1,370,000 4,400,000
Total Amount Ton 39,785,500 19,254,221 1,352,895 7,341,943 6,043,793 911,446 3,290,400
Fisheries Capture Ton 5,128,381 814,946 631,442 207,500 425,694 200,816 157,467
Aquaculture Ton 420,024 173,452 203,037 26,280 204,860 162,618 80,004
Total Amount Ton 554,841 98,840 83,448 23,378 63,055 36,343 23,747
Livestock Cattle Ton 90,768,500 12,215,000 9,900,000 12,482,389 19,008,990 6,440,361 28,418,422
Pig Ton 64,775,000 12,879,000 4,885,000 27,690,100 13,487,588 8,661,500 2,098,147
Poultry Ton 2,960,700 173,230 155,320 136,308 204,935 165,000 103,301
Sheep & goats Ton 8,227,000 917,000 32,301,000 1,819,800 8,773,316 7,975,600 78,271,551
Total Amount Ton 1,042,844,524 143,330,508 117,793,773 157,230,993 219,584,848 78,289,531 326,807,929
Industrial Beer Ton 22,931,400 1,925,500 4,204,900 8,850,266 1,900,000 1,279,100 1,735,000
Edible Oil Ton 9,395,900 282,700 127,400 1,091,400 583,200 991,600 41,950
Raw sugar Ton 8,179,000 133,000 1,124,000 4,596,232 4,097,000 372,000 3,733,000
Wine Ton 2,820,000 57,000 1,500 528,515 5,286,414 4,089,000 1,155,000
Pulp Ton 49,519,530 17,189,000 224,000 2,636,000 2,755,685 578,936 1,431,000
Fibreboard Ton 8,131,000 1,290,000 788,000 5,062,870 1,070,610 730,000 459,000
Total Amount Ton 20,195,366 4,175,440 1,293,960 4,553,057 3,138,582 1,608,127 1,710,990
Treatment Treatment Cost USD/Ton 60 75 80 82 90 70 40
Total Cost USD/Year 82,144,044,798 15,091,598,089 12,683,373,216 18,281,934,644 25,342,194,784 8,502,600,220 14,222,774,258
Fertilizer Total Amount Ton 19,298,449 2,613,755 1,801,000 2,594,327 3,968,000 1,432,642 2,279,590
Total Cost USD/Year 6,754,457,150 914,814,250 630,350,000 908,014,450 1,388,800,000 501,424,700 797,856,500
Remark for Waste Volume Estimatation
Daily: 1.5kg per day for single person (including kitchen waste and food waste)
Agriculture, forestry, fisheries: Waste volume estimately counted from 20% of product
Livestock: cattle 30kg/day, pig 2kg/day, sheep 0.5kg/day, poultry 0.15kg/day
Industrial: Waste volume estimately counted from 20% of product